Linux Distribution or Distro is an operating system based on a Linux Kernel which is configured in a certain manner. A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system (Xorg or Wayland), a window manager, and a desktop environment. They also vary upon what device they are made for ;desktops, servers, laptops, netbooks, mobile phones ,tablets or a toaster. There are thousands of distros out there which have different and unique user experience. They are classified by packaging systems, installation method, user experience, software availablity, release cycle, philosophy, use cases, etc. So, a complete chart of classification is difficult to make.
Arch Linux is an independently developed, x86-64 general-purpose GNU/Linux distribution that strives to provide the latest stable versions of most software by following a rolling-release model. The default installation is a minimal base system, configured by the user to only add what is purposely required.
Debian is a free operating system (OS) for your computer. Debian uses the Linux Kernel, and most of the basic OS tools come from the GNU project. Debian generally follows standerd relese cycles and is easy to install and run.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (often abbreviated to RHEL) is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat for the commercial market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for x86-64, Power ISA, ARM64, and IBM Z and a desktop version for x86-64. It too generally follows standerd relese cycles instead of rolling relese.
It is the oldest currently existing linux distribution. Slackware provides no graphical installation procedure and no automatic dependency resolution of software packages. It uses plain text files and only a small set of shell scripts for configuration and administration. It too is a standerd relese distribution.
Gentoo is a free operating system based on Linux that can be automatically optimized and customized for just about any application or need. It is a rolling release distribution. It's compiled locally according to the user's preferences and is often optimized for the specific type of computer.
The SUSE distribution is a stable, easy to use and complete multi-purpose distribution. It is aimed towards users and developers working on the desktop or server. It is a generally standard release distribution and is the first enterprise Linux provider of the world.